The Arab world Arabic: In the Middle Ages, the Arab world was synonymous with the historic Arab empires and caliphates. Arab nationalism arose in the second half of the 19th century along with other nationalist movements within the Ottoman Empire. The Arab League was formed in to represent the interests of Arab people and especially to pursue the political unification of the Arab countries; a project known Big arab sex Pan-Arabism. The linguistic and political denotation inherent in the term Arab is generally dominant over genealogical considerations.
In Arab states, Modern Standard Arabic is the only language used by the government. Darija is spoken and, to various extents, mutually understood in the Maghreb Big arab sex, especially Morocco, Algeria, and Tunisia, but it is unintelligible to speakers of other Arabic dialects, mainly for those in Egypt and the Middle East.
Although no globally accepted definition of the Arab world exists,  all countries that are members of the Arab League are generally acknowledged as being part of the Arab world. The Arab League is a regional organisation that aims among other things to consider in Big arab sex general way the affairs and interests of the Arab countries and sets out the following definition of an Arab:.
An Arab is a person whose language is Arabic, who lives in an Arabic country, and who is in sympathy with the aspirations of the Arabic people. This standard territorial definition is sometimes seen to be inappropriate  or problematic,  and may be supplemented with certain additional elements see ancillary linguistic definition below.
As Big arab sex alternative to,  or in combination with,  the standard territorial definition, the Big arab sex world may be defined as consisting of peoples and states united to at least some degree by Arabic language, culture or geographic contiguity,  or those states or territories in which the majority of the population speaks Arabic, and thus may also include populations of the Arab diaspora.
When an ancillary linguistic definition is used in combination with the standard territorial definitionvarious parameters may be applied [ clarification needed ] to determine whether a state or territory should be included in this alternative definition of the Arab world. These parameters may be applied [ clarification needed ] to the states and territories of the Arab League which constitute the Arab world under the standard definition and to other states and territories.
Typical parameters that may be applied include: While Arabic dialects are spoken in a number of Arab League states, Literary Arabic is official in all of them. Several states have declared Arabic to be an official or national languagealthough Arabic is today not as widely spoken there.
As members of the Arab League, however, they Big arab sex considered part of the Arab world under the standard territorial definition. Somalia has two official languages today, Arabic and Somaliboth of which belong to the larger Afro-Asiatic language family. Although Arabic is widely spoken by many people in the north and urban areas in the south, Somali is the most widely used language, and contains many Arabic loan words.
Similarly, Djibouti has two official languages, Arabic and French. It also has several formally recognized national languages; besides Somali, many people speak Afarwhich is also an Afro-Asiatic language. The majority of the population Big arab sex Somali and Afar, although Arabic is also widely used for trade and other activities.
Comoros has three official languages: Arabic, Comorian and French. Comorian is the most widely spoken language, with Arabic having a religious significance, and French being associated with the educational system. ChadEritrea  and Israel all recognize Arabic as an official language, but none of them is a member-state of the Arab League, although both Chad and Eritrea are observer states of the League with possible future membership and have large populations of Arabic speakers.
Israel is not part of the Arab world. By some definitions,   Arab citizens of Israel may concurrently be considered a constituent part of the Arab world. Iran Big arab sex about 1. Mali and Senegal recognize Hassaniyathe Arabic dialect of the Moorish ethnic minority, as a Big arab sex language. Additionally, Malta, though not part of the Arab world, has as its official language Maltese.
The language is grammatically akin to Maghrebi Arabic.
In the Arab world, Modern Standard Arabicderived from Classical Arabic symptomatic of Arabic diglossiaserves as an official language in the Arab League states, and Arabic dialects are used as lingua franca. Various indigenous languages are also spoken, which predate the spread of the Arabic language. This contrasts with the situation in the wider Islamic worldwhere, in contiguous Iran, Pakistan and Afghanistan, the Perso-Arabic script is used and Arabic is the primary liturgical language, but the tongue is not official at the state level or spoken as a vernacular.
Arabs constitute around one quarter of the 1. The majority of people in the Arab world adhere to Islamand the religion has official status in most countries.
Shariah law exists partially in the legal system in some countries especially in the Arabian peninsulawhile others are legislatively secular. The majority of Big arab sex Arab countries adhere to Sunni Islam. Iraq and Bahrainhowever, are Shia majority countries, while LebanonYemenand Kuwait Big arab sex large Shia minorities. CopticMaronite and Assyrian Christian [ disambiguation needed ] enclaves exist Big arab sex the Nile Valley, Levant and northern Iraq respectively.
There are also numbers of AssyrianArmenianSyriac - Aramean and Arab Christians throughout Iraq, Syria, Lebanon and Jordan, many of which have diminished due to various regional conflicts. Formerly, there were significant minorities of Jews throughout the Arab World.
However, the Arab—Israeli conflict prompted their mass exodus between — Today small Jewish communities remain, ranging anywhere from just 10 in Bahrainto more than 1, in Tunisia and some 3, in Morocco. Historically, slavery in Big arab sex Muslim world developed out of pre-Islamic practices of slavery in the Arab world.
Overall, the gender disparity in adult literacy is high in this region, and of the illiteracy rate, women account for two-thirds, with only 69 literate women for every literate men.
Above all, the GPI of Yemen Big arab sex only 0. Literacy rate is higher among the youth than adults. Youth literacy rate ages 15—24 in the Arab region increased from Big arab sex The United Nations published an Arab human development report inand These reports, written by researchers from the Arab world, address some sensitive issues in the development of Arab countries: Women in the Arab world are still denied equality of opportunityalthough their disenfranchisement is a critical factor crippling the Arab nations' quest to return to the first rank of global leaders in commerce, learning and culture, according to a United Nations -sponsored report in Table of largest cities in the Arab world by official city propers: The Arabs historically originate as a Central Semitic group in the Arabian peninsula.
Their expansion beyond Arabia and the Syrian desert is due to the Muslim conquests of the 7th and 8th centuries.
Egypt was conquered inand gradually Arabized during the medieval period. A distinctively Egyptian Arabic language emerged by the 16th century.
The Maghreb was also Big arab sex in the 7th century, and gradually Arabized under the Fatimids. Islam was brought to Sudan from Egypt during the 8th to 11th centuries. The culture of Sudan today depends on the tribe, some have a pure Nubian, Bejaor Arabic culture and some have a mixture of Arab and Nubian elements.
The Arab Abbasid Caliphate fell to the Mongol invasions in the 13th century. Bythe Turkish Ottoman Empire controlled most of the Arab world. However, Morocco remained under the rule of the Zenata Wattasid dynastywhich was succeeded by the Saadi dynasty in the 16th to Big arab sex centuries.
The Ajuran Sultanate also held sway in the southern part of the Horn region. The sentiment of Arab nationalism arose in the second half of the 19th century along with other nationalisms within the declining Ottoman Empire. When the Ottoman Empire collapsed as a result of World War Imuch of the Arab world came to be controlled by the European colonial empires: Omanapart from brief intermittent Persian and Portuguese rule has, been self-governing since the 8th century.
The Arab League was formed in to represent the interests of the Big arab sex, and especially to pursue the political unification of the Arab world, a project known as Pan-Arabism.
The Arab League's main goal is to unify politically the Arab populations so defined. Its permanent headquarters are located in Cairo. However, it was moved temporarily to Tunis during the Big arab sex, after Egypt Big arab sex expelled for signing the Camp David Accords Pan-Arabism has mostly been abandoned as an ideology since the s, and was replaced by Pan-Islamism on one hand, and individual nationalisms on the other.
The unification of Saudi Arabia was a year-long military and political campaign, by which the various tribessheikhdomsand emirates of most of the Arabian Peninsula were conquered by the House of Saudor Al Saudbetween andwhen the modern-day Kingdom of Saudi Arabia was proclaimed.
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Carried out under the charismatic Abdul Aziz Ibn Saudthis process created what is sometimes referred to as the Third Saudi Stateto differentiate it from the first and second states that existed under the Big arab sex Saud clan. The resultant polity was named the Kingdom of Nejd and Hejaz from until it was further consolidated with Al-Hasa and Qatif into the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia in The establishment of the State of Israel in has given rise to the Arab—Israeli conflictone of the major unresolved geopolitical conflicts.
The Arab states in changing alliances were involved in a number of wars with Israel and its western allies between andincluding the Arab—Israeli Warthe Suez Crisisthe Six-Day War ofand the Yom Kippur War of An Egypt—Israel Peace Treaty was signed in The Iran—Iraq War also known as the First Gulf War and by various other names was an armed conflict between Big arab sex armed forces of Iraq and Iran, lasting from September to Augustmaking it the second longest conventional war of the 20th century.