Oxidative stress associated with cardiovascular disease CVD risk factors contributes to disease development. However, less is known whether specific subcellular components play a role in disease susceptibility. In this regard, it has been previously reported that vascular mitochondrial damage and dysfunction are associated with atherosclerosis.
Endogenous mitochondrial oxidative stress is an important CVD risk Rangan protein lick that can modulate atherogenesis and cytokine-induced endothelial cell oxidant generation. Consequently, CVD risk factors that induce mitochondrial damage alter cellular response to endogenous atherogenic Rangan protein lick, increasing disease susceptibility.
Cardiovascular disease CVD is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the Western world Rosamond et al.
Although the underlying etiology of CVD development is still somewhat controversial, there is a general consensus that atherosclerotic lesions result from oxidative stress associated with CVD risk factors. Clinical and epidemiological studies have clearly shown that increased low-density lipoprotein LDL cholesterol levels are associated with increased atherogenic risk, and subsequent Rangan protein lick have revealed that LDL must be oxidatively modified to damage the arterial wall and endothelium Liao et al.
Similarly, tobacco smoke exposure was identified as a major atherogenic risk factor in the Framingham heart study Seltzerand epidemiological evidence has unequivocally confirmed that smoking is a major CVD risk factor Glantz and Parmley Clinical data from additional studies demonstrate that both active and passive smoking were associated with accelerated atherosclerosis progression as assessed by the increase in carotid artery intimal-medial thickness Howard et al.
Despite overwhelming evidence indicating that tobacco smoke is one of the most significant risk factors for CVD development, essentially little is known about the fundamental processes of how it increases CVD susceptibility.
Mitochondria are multifunctional organelles that are essential for a variety of cell functions, including Rangan protein lick production, thermogenesis, apoptosis, and redox signaling.
Mitochondrial mutation, damage, and dysfunction have been associated with a broad spectrum of disorders, including CVD Ballinger et al. Rangan protein lick SOD2 is essential for the regulation of mitochondrial Rangan protein lick, we hypothesized that altered endogenous mitochondrial oxidant stress can influence atherogenic susceptibility.
Diet and water were supplied ad libitum. All animals were treated humanely, with regard to alleviation of suffering. Exposures were conducted at the Institute of Toxicology and Environmental Health inhalation facilities University of California—Davis in accordance with institutional guidelines. Control mice were exposed to filtered air only. The standard reference cigarette, 1R4F, was used Davis et al.
Tissues were then homogenized in 1.
Whole aortas were stained with oil red-O and quantified as previously described Knight-Lozano et al. For additional details, see Supplemental Material doi: Aortic homogenates were prepared as described in Supplemental Material doi: Louis, MO ] Protein carbonyls oxidation were detected by derivatizing homogenates with 10 mM 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine before electrophoresis.
Blots were visualized using chemiluminescence of the secondary horseradish peroxidase—goat anti-rabbit IgG. Total blood plasma cholesterol levels were assessed using a cholesterol lipoprotein profile CLiP apparatus, as previously described Garber et al.
For details, see Supplemental Material doi: H 2 O 2 generation was calibrated by constructing standard curves using known H 2 O 2 concentrations. Mitochondria were isolated using standard Rangan protein lick centrifugation techniques Trounce et al. The supernatant was transferred, and the first set of spin conditions was repeated two more times.
The supernatant was discarded, the mitochondrial pellet was resuspended in isolation buffer, and the high-speed spin was repeated. Aconitase activity Rangan protein lick determined in aortic mitochondrial isolates two aortas per isolate as described by Knight-Lozano et al. For a detailed description, see Supplemental Material, page 6 doi: Cells were then visualized using fluorescence microscopy or lysed for further experiments. A total of three independent experiments were performed for each treatment.
Fluorescence intensity was quantified using ImageJ software version 1. A total of five animals per group were used for each end point, except for in vitro studies three independent experiments. We used analysis of variance to test the null hypothesis that all samples were drawn from a single population.
We then quantified the impact of decreased SOD2 activity on atherogenesis by oil red-O staining of whole aortas harvested from mice exposed to either filtered air or ETS. These effects were not associated with differences in cholesterol levels between or among Rangan protein lick or exposure groups Figure 1Bconsistent with the notion that elevated mitochondrial oxidative stress can increase individual susceptibility to atherogenic factors.
B Plasma lipoprotein profiles. To assess mitochondrial oxidant load, we quantified aconitase activity from mitochondrial isolates [see Supplemental Material, page 7 doi: Interestingly, we observed a contrasting relationship when determining the degree of reactive nitrogen species formation using 3-NT levels. A SOD2 and platelet-endothelial cell adhesion molecule Pecam-1 levels.
Assessment C and quantification D of rhodamine fluorescence. Our findings are consistent with the hypothesis that endogenous mitochondrial oxidant stress can influence the Rangan protein lick of CVD risk factors. Decreased SOD2 activity increased measures of cellular and mitochondrial oxidant stress and, moreover, atherosclerotic lesion development under conditions of hypercholesterolemia and ETS exposure. These effects were not associated with changes in cholesterol levels between genotypes or exposure regimens and hence demonstrate that decreased mitochondrial antioxidant capacity can increase susceptibility to CVD development.
This fact emphasizes the importance of the mitochondrion and the regulation of its oxidant levels for proper cellular function. Studies have shown that compromised SOD2 activity influences vessel relaxation Chen et al. Similarly, increased SOD2 expression has been shown to be protective against ischemia Rangan protein lick injury, xenobiotic cardiotoxicity, alcohol-induced liver injury, and diabetic cardiomyopathy Chen et al.
Overall, Rangan protein lick findings suggest that mitochondrial oxidative stress and damage play an important role in influencing susceptibility to CVD risk factors. Cells with SOD2 activities that fall below a minimal threshold required for survival would be lost, leaving those with sufficient SOD2 activity as survivors.
Studies showing that compromised SOD2 activity increases sensitivity to cell death are consistent with this concept Fujimura et al. Increased mitochondrial oxidant generation may also trigger increased nonmitochondrial sources of H 2 O 2 production when challenged with ETS.
These findings suggest that the species contributing to cellular stress can vary, depending upon endogenous and exogenous factors. Because Rangan protein lick protein oxidation and mtDNA damage can be mediated by several different reactive species, the results presented in Figure 2A and E are not inconsistent with this concept.
In fact, our in vitro results support this notion Figure 4. We therefore propose that mitochondrial integrity and function are important in determining individual vulnerability to common CVD risk factors such as ETS or hypercholesterolemia.
Sustained mitochondrial damage due to CVD risk factor exposure, age, etc. Resultant cytokines would further induce mitochondrial ROS production, creating a cycle of inflammation and mitochondrial ROS production. Disease risk factors cause mitochondrial damage that changes cellular response stimuli via increased oxidants, which creates a cycle of Rangan protein lick ROS production and inflammation.
Because mitochondrial function and integrity decline over time and are influenced by changes in the cellular environment e. This Rangan protein lick response concept is complementary with the inflammatory response theory in that the accumulation of oxidative stress associated with inflammation causes mitochondrial damage in vascular tissues, which may further enhance the proinflammatory pathways that lead to vascular cell dysfunction, a key step in the disease development.
Supplemental Material is available online doi: Garber for assistance with CLiP cholesterol lipoprotein profile analysis. National Center for Biotechnology InformationU. Journal List Environ Health Perspect v. Published online Dec Harrison1 Melissa Pompilius1 Kent E. Pinkerton2 and Scott W. Address correspondence to S.
The authors declare they have no actual or potential competing financial interests. Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Received Aug 12; Accepted Dec Publication of EHP lies in the public domain and is therefore without copyright.
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Rangan protein lick Reproduced with permission from Environmental Health Perspectives? Articles from EHP, especially the News section, may contain photographs or illustrations copyrighted by other commercial organizations or individuals that may not be used without obtaining prior approval from the holder of the copyright. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract Background Oxidative stress associated with cardiovascular disease CVD risk factors contributes to disease development.
Conclusions Endogenous mitochondrial oxidative stress is an important CVD risk factor that can modulate atherogenesis and cytokine-induced endothelial cell oxidant generation. Exposures Exposures were conducted at the Institute of Toxicology and Environmental Health inhalation facilities University of California—Davis in accordance with institutional guidelines.
Rangan protein lick cigarettes The standard reference cigarette, 1R4F, was used Davis et al. Atherosclerotic lesion quantification Whole aortas were stained with oil red-O and quantified as previously described Knight-Lozano et al.
Cholesterol determination Total blood plasma cholesterol levels were assessed using a cholesterol lipoprotein profile CLiP apparatus, as previously described Garber et al. Rangan protein lick isolation Mitochondria were isolated using standard differential centrifugation techniques Trounce et al.
Aconitase activity Aconitase activity was determined in aortic mitochondrial isolates two aortas per isolate as described by Knight-Lozano et al.
Statistical analysis A total of five animals per group were used for each end point, except for in vitro studies three independent experiments. Open in a separate window. Discussion Our findings are consistent with the hypothesis that endogenous mitochondrial oxidant stress can influence the impact of CVD risk factors. Footnotes Supplemental Material is available online doi: References Ambrose J, Barua R.
The pathophysiology of cigarette smoking and cardiovascular disease: J Am Coll Cardiol. Hydrogen peroxide- and peroxynitrite-induced mitochondrial DNA damage and dysfunction in vascular endothelial and smooth muscle cells.
Nitric oxide, superoxide, and peroxynitrite: Inhibition of tumor necrosis factor-alpha reduces atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E knockout mice. PROTEIN LICK 40 – PRODUCTION LICK. MIXING INSTRUCTIONS.