The city spreads across several hills and over a narrow plain that contains its commercial and industrial sections.
Originally a Megarian city founded in the 8th century bce and called Astacus or Olbiait achieved its greatest fame as Nicomedia, built about bce by Nicomedes I of Bithynia to replace the destroyed old city. It served as the capital of the Kocaeli city of Bithynia and later, under the Romans, was often the residence of emperors.
It became the eastern capital of the Roman Empire under Diocletian.
After a period of Kocaeli city under the Byzantinesit fell to the Ottomans in Historical monuments in the city include the Kocaeli city of the ancient walls and a Byzantine fortress; a 16th-century mosque was built by the renowned Ottoman court architect Sinan. On August 17,the city was near the epicentre of a devastating earthquakewhich killed more than 17, people, injured more than 40, and destroyed or seriously damaged hundreds of thousands of buildings.
It also has a large oil refinery. Other industries include cement, phosphate, textiles, petrochemicals, and tires.
The city is connected by road with major towns. We welcome suggested improvements to any of our articles.
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The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica. Learn More in these related Britannica articles: In the interim, he and his lieutenants had calmed the stirrings of revolt among Roman troops stationed on the frontiers.
From that point on, he dedicated himself to restoring civil order to the empire by removing the army from politics. Thousands of people were killed, Kocaeli city large parts of a number of mid-sized towns and cities were destroyed.
Turkeycountry that occupies a unique geographic position, lying partly in Asia and partly in Europe. Throughout its history it has acted as both Kocaeli city barrier and a bridge between the two continents.
Turkey is situated at…. Sea of Marmarainland sea partly separating the Asiatic and European parts of Turkey.
It is connected through the Bosporus on the northeast with the Black Sea and through the Dardanelles on the southwest with the Aegean Sea.
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