Army has its roots in the Continental Armywhich was formed 14 June to fight the American Revolutionary War — —before the Us military website States of America was established as a country. Us military website a uniformed military servicethe U. Army is part of the Department of the Armywhich is one of the three military departments of the Department of Defense. Army was 1, soldiers. Army is "to fight and win our Nation's wars, by providing prompt, sustained, land dominance, across the full range of military operations and the spectrum of conflict, in support of combatant commanders ".
The United States Army serves as the land-based branch of the U.
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Section of Title 10, U. Code defines the purpose of the army as: Inthe Army Strategy articulated an eight-point addendum to the Army Vision for The Continental Army was created on 14 June by the Second Continental Congress  as a unified army for the colonies to fight Great Britainwith George Washington appointed as its commander. As the Revolutionary War progressed, French aid, resources and military thinking influenced the new army.
A number of European soldiers came on Us military website own to help, such as Friedrich Wilhelm von Steubenwho taught Prussian Army tactics and organizational skills.
The army fought numerous pitched battles and in the South in —, sometimes used the Fabian strategy and hit-and-run tacticshitting where the British were weakest to wear down their forces. Washington led victories against the British at Trenton and Princetonbut lost a series of battles in the New York and New Jersey campaign in and Us military website Philadelphia campaign in With a decisive victory at Yorktown and the help of the French, the Continental Army prevailed against the British.
After the war, the Continental Army was quickly given land certificates and disbanded in a reflection of the Us military website distrust of standing armies. State militias became the new nation's sole ground army, with the exception of a regiment to guard the Western Frontier and one battery of artillery guarding West Point 's arsenal.
However, because of continuing conflict with Native Americansit was soon realized that it was necessary to field a trained standing army. The Regular Army was at first very small and after General St.
Clair's defeat at the Battle of the Wabash, the Regular Army was reorganized as the Legion of the United Stateswhich was established in and renamed the United States Army in The War ofthe second and last war between the United States and Great Britain, had mixed results.
Army did not conquer Canada but it did destroy Native American resistance to expansion in the Old Northwest and it validated its independence by stopping two major British invasions in and After taking control of Lake Erie inthe U. Army seized parts of western Upper Canada, burned York and defeated Tecumsehwhich caused his Western Confederacy to collapse.
Army "Regulars, by God! The regular army, however proved they Us military website professional and capable of defeating the British army during Us military website invasions of Plattsburgh and Baltimoreprompting British agreement on the previously rejected terms of a status quo ante bellum.
Philipand became a national hero. Per the treaty, both sides the United States and Great Britain returned Us military website the geographical status quo. Both navies kept the warships they Us military website seized during the conflict. The army's major campaign against the Indians was fought in Florida against Seminoles. It took long wars — to finally defeat the Seminoles and move them to Oklahoma.
The usual strategy in Indian wars was to seize control of the Indians' winter food supply, but that was no use in Florida where there was no winter. The second strategy was to form alliances with other Indian tribes, but that too was useless because the Seminoles had destroyed all the other Indians when they entered Florida in the late eighteenth century.
Army fought and won the Mexican—American War Us military websitewhich was a defining event for both countries. The American Civil War was the costliest war for the U. After most slave stateslocated in the southern U. Army officers, mobilized a large fraction of Southern white Us military website. Forces of the United States the "Union" or "the North" formed the Union Armyconsisting of a small body of regular army units and a large body of volunteer units raised from every state, north and south, except South Carolina.
For the first two years Confederate forces did well in set battles but lost control of the border states.
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The Union Us military website a strategy of seizing the coastline, blockading the ports, and taking control of the river systems. Bythe Confederacy was being strangled. Its eastern armies fought well, but the western armies were defeated one after another until the Union forces captured New Orleans Us military website along with the Tennessee River. Grant took command of Union forces in and after a series of battles with very heavy casualties, he had General Robert E.
Lee under siege in Richmond as General William T. Sherman captured Atlanta and marched through Georgia and the Carolinas. The Confederate capital was abandoned in April and Lee subsequently surrendered his army at Appomattox Court House.
All other Confederate armies surrendered within a few months. The war remains the deadliest conflict in U. Following the Civil War, the U. Army had the mission of containing western tribes of Native Americans on the Indian reservations. They set up many forts, and engaged in the last of the American Indian Wars. Army troops also occupied several Southern states during the Reconstruction Era to protect freedmen.
The key battles of the Spanish—American War of were fought by the Navy. Using mostly new volunteers, the U. Army defeated Spain in land campaigns in Cuba and played the central role in the Philippine—American War. Starting inthe army began acquiring fixed-wing aircraft. The army was deployed to Us military website.
They fought the rebels and the Mexican federal troops until With the armistice in Novemberthe army once again decreased its forces. Us military websiteestimates of the Army's strength range betweenandsoldiers, smaller than that of Portugal 's, which ranked it 17th or 19th in the world in size.
Marshall became Army Chief of Staff in September and set about expanding and modernizing the Army in preparation for war. On the European frontU. Army troops formed a significant portion Us military website the forces that captured North Africa and Sicily and later fought in Italy.
Army troops played a central role.
In the Pacific WarU. Following the Axis surrenders in May Germany and August Japan ofarmy troops were deployed to Japan and Germany to occupy the two defeated nations. Inthe army was desegregated by order of President Harry Us military website. With the outbreak of the Korean Warconcerns over the defense of Western Europe rose. Hundreds of Us military website of U. During the Cold War, U. The Korean War began inwhen the Soviets walked out of a U.
Security Council meeting, removing their possible veto. Under a United Nations umbrella, hundreds of thousands of U. After repeated advances and retreats by both sides and the Chinese People's Volunteer Army 's entry into the war, the Korean Armistice Agreement returned the peninsula to the status quo in The Vietnam War is often regarded as a low point for the U.
Army due to the use of drafted personnelthe unpopularity of the war with the U.
On a tactical level, U. During the s, the Department of Defense continued to scrutinize the reserve forces and to question the number of divisions and brigades as well as the redundancy of maintaining two reserve components, the Army National Guard and the Army Reserve.
The loss of the divisions did not sit well with the states. Their objections included the inadequate maneuver element mix for those that remained and the end to the practice of rotating divisional commands among the states that supported them.
Under the Us military website, the remaining division commanders were to reside in the state of the division base.
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However, no reduction in total Army National Guard strength was to take place, which convinced the governors to accept the plan. The states reorganized their forces accordingly between 1 December and 1 May President should be able to take the United States and more specifically the U. Army to war without the support of the U.
The s was mostly a decade of reorganization. The army converted to an all-volunteer force with greater emphasis on training and technology. The Goldwater-Nichols Act of created unified combatant commands bringing the army together with the other four military services under unified, geographically organized command structures. By Germany was nearing reunification and the Cold War was coming to a close.
Army leadership reacted by starting to plan for a reduction in strength. InIraq invaded its smaller neighbor, Kuwaitand U.
Army formations, to drive out Iraqi forces. The campaign ended in total victory, as Western coalition forces routed the Iraqi Army. Some of the largest tank battles in history were fought during the Gulf war. After Us military website Desert Storm, the army did not see major combat operations for the remainder of the s but did participate in a number of peacekeeping activities. In the Department of Defense issued guidance for "rebalancing" after a review of the Total Force Policy,  but inAir War College scholars concluded the guidance would reverse the Total Force Policy which is Us military website "essential ingredient to the successful application of military force".
On 11 September53 Army civilians 47 employees and six contractors and 22 soldiers were among the victims killed in the Pentagon in a terrorist attack when American Airlines Flight 77 commandeered by five Al-Qaeda hijackers slammed into the western side of Us military website building, as part of the September 11 attacks.
Army officer killed by foreign action since the death of Lieutenant General Simon B. Army also led the combined U. The U.S.
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