A savanna or savannah is a mixed woodland grassland ecosystem characterised by the trees being sufficiently widely spaced so that the canopy does not close. The open canopy allows sufficient light Savannah spread up close reach the ground Savannah spread up close support an unbroken herbaceous layer consisting primarily of grasses.
Savannas maintain an open canopy despite a high tree density. However, in many savannas, tree densities are higher and trees are more regularly spaced than in forests.
Savannas are also characterised by seasonal water availability, with the majority of rainfall confined to one season; they are associated with several types of biomesand are frequently in a transitional zone between forest and desert or grassland.
The word originally entered English in  as the Latin Zauana equivalent in the orthography of the times to zavana see history of V.
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Peter Martyr reported it as the local name for the plain around Comagrethe court of the cacique Savannah spread up close in present-day Panama. Many grassy landscapes and mixed communities of trees, shrubs, and grasses were described as savanna before the middle of the 19th century, when the concept of a tropical savanna climate became Savannah spread up close.
The common usage meaning to describe vegetation now conflicts with a simplified yet widespread climatic concept meaning. The divergence has sometimes caused areas such as extensive savannas north and south of the Congo and Amazon Rivers to be excluded from mapped savanna categories. Sometimes midwestern savanna were described as "grassland with trees".
Two factors common to all savanna environments are rainfall variations from year to year, and dry season wildfires. Over many large tropical areas, the dominant biome forest, savanna or grassland can not be predicted only by the climate, as historical events plays also a key role, for example, fire activity. Savannas are subject to regular wildfires and the ecosystem appears to be the result of human use of fire.
For example, Native Americans created the Pre-Columbian savannas of North America by periodically burning where fire-resistant plants were the dominant species.
Aboriginal burning appears to have been responsible for the widespread occurrence of savanna in tropical Australia and New Guinea and Savannah spread up close in India are a result of human fire use.
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These fires are usually confined to the herbaceous layer and do little long term damage to mature trees. However, these fires either kill or suppress tree seedlings, thus preventing the establishment of a continuous tree canopy which would prevent further grass growth.
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Prior to European settlement aboriginal land use practices, including fire, influenced vegetation  and may have maintained and modified savanna flora. Aboriginal burning certainly created a habitat mosaic that probably increased biodiversity and changed the structure of woodlands and geographic range of numerous woodland species. The consumption of herbage by introduced grazers in savanna woodlands has led to a reduction in the amount of fuel available for burning and resulted in fewer and cooler fires.
The closed forest types such as broadleaf Savannah spread up close and rainforests are usually not grazed owing to the closed structure precluding grass growth, and hence offering little opportunity for grazing. The removal of grass by grazing affects the woody plant component of woodland systems in two major ways.
Grasses compete with woody Savannah spread up close for water in the topsoil and removal by grazing reduces this competitive effect, potentially boosting tree growth. There is evidence that unpalatable woody plants have increased under grazing in savannas. Introduced grazing animals can also affect soil condition through physical compaction and break-up of the soil caused by the hooves of animals and through the erosion effects caused by the removal of protective plant cover.
Such effects are most likely to occur on land subjected to repeated and heavy grazing.
Alteration in soil structure and nutrient levels affects the establishment, growth and survival of plant species and in turn can lead to a change in woodland structure and composition. Large Savannah spread up close of Australian and South American savannas have been cleared of Savannah spread up close, and this clearing is continuing today.
For example, until recentlyha of savanna were cleared annually in Australia alone primarily to improve pasture production. Clearing is carried out by the grazing industry in an attempt to increase the quality and quantity of feed available for stock and to improve the management of livestock. The removal of trees from savanna land removes the competition for water from the grasses present, and can lead to a two to fourfold increase in pasture production, as well as improving the quality of the feed available.
A number of techniques have been employed to clear or kill woody plants in savannas.
Early pastoralists used felling and girdlingthe removal of a ring of bark and sapwoodas a means of clearing land. War-surplus heavy machinery was made available, and these were used for either pushing timber, or for pulling using a chain and ball strung between two machines.
These two new methods of timber control, along with the introduction and widespread adoption of several new pasture grasses and legumes promoted a Savannah spread up close in tree clearing. The s also saw the release of soil-applied arboricides, notably tebuthiuronthat could be utilised without cutting and injecting each individual tree.
In many ways "artificial" clearing, particularly pulling, mimics the effects of fire and, in savannas adapted to regeneration after fire as most Queensland savannas are, there is a similar response to that after fire. A Savannah spread up close of woody plants equal to half or more of the original number often remains following pulling of eucalypt communities, even if all the trees over 5 metres are uprooted completely.
A number of exotic plants species have been introduced to the savannas around the world. Savannah spread up close the woody plant species are serious environmental weeds such as Prickly Acacia Acacia niloticaRubbervine Cryptostegia grandifloraMesquite Prosopis spp. A range of herbaceous species have also been introduced to these woodlands, either deliberately or accidentally including Rhodes grass and other Chloris species, Buffel grass Cenchrus ciliarisGiant rat's tail grass Sporobolus pyramidalis parthenium Parthenium hysterophorus and stylos Stylosanthes spp.
These introductions have the potential to significantly alter the structure and Savannah spread up close of savannas worldwide, and have already done so in many areas through a number of processes including altering the fire regime, increasing grazing pressure, competing with native vegetation and occupying previously vacant ecological niches.
Human induced climate change resulting from the greenhouse effect may result in an alteration of the structure and function of savannas.
Some authors  have suggested that savannas and grasslands may become even more susceptible to woody plant encroachment as a result of greenhouse induced climate change.
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However, a recent case described a savanna increasing its range at the expense of forest in response to climate variation, and potential exists for similar rapid, dramatic shifts in vegetation distribution as a result of global climate change, particularly at ecotones such as savannas so often represent.
Savanna ecoregions are Savannah spread up close several different types:. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
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For the city, see Savannah, Georgia. For other uses, see Savannah disambiguation.
Ecology and management of North American Savannas. University of Arizona Press. Savanna Ecology and Management: Australian Perspectives and Intercontinental Comparisons. Toby Pennington, James A.
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Gotsch, Gabriel Damasco, M. Oxford University Press Oxford De Orbe Novo Decades. Cum Ejusdem Legatione Babylonica.
With the Babylonian Legation. William Powell London This playne, they caule Zauana. The Image Composite Savannah spread up close. Accessed 1 August Human Ecology in Savanna Environments. The future distribution of the savannah biome: B, The global extent and determinants of savanna and forest as alternative biome states. Frenchs Forest, New South Wales: University of Washington Press. Native Vegetation Management in Queensland.
Rates, patterns and proximate causes. Ecological Implications of Livestock Herbivory in the West. Landscape degradation in native pasture. Native pastures in Queensland their resources and management. Fire in northern pastoral lands. Fire in the management of northern Australian pastoral lands. Natural and derived grasslands.
Cambridge, Cambridge University Press. Plant ecological relations in open forests, woodlands and shrublands. Impacts of domestic grazing within remnant vegetation.
Ecology and silviculture of eucalypt forests. Management and production aspects. Brisbane, Department of Natural Resources. Vegetation ecology and management. Management of Australia's Rangelands. Management of Rangeland Ecosystems. Managing grazing in northern Australia.
Managing tree and shrub populations. The pasture lands of northern Australia. Rapid landscape response to climate variation". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. Revista La Tadeo in Spanish. Universidad Jorge Tadeo Lozano.
Tundra Taiga Montane grasslands and shrublands. Coniferous forests Broadleaf and mixed forests Deciduous forests Grasslands, savannas, and shrublands. Coniferous forests Moist broadleaf forests Dry broadleaf forests Grasslands, savannas, and shrublands. Mediterranean forests, woodlands, and scrub Deserts and xeric shrublands. Flooded grasslands and savannas Riparian Wetland.
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This inflection point eventually led to the beginning of the Pleistocene glaciations. A number of techniques have been employed to clear or kill woody plants in savannas. Ecology and silviculture of eucalypt forests. Aboriginal burning certainly created a habitat mosaic that probably increased biodiversity and changed the structure of woodlands and geographic range of numerous woodland species.
Accessed 1 August
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Prior to European settlement aboriginal land use practices, including fire, influenced vegetation  and may have maintained and modified savanna flora. A number of exotic plants species have been introduced to the savannas around the world.
Biogeographic provinces Bioregions Ecoregions List of ecoregions Global ecoregions. Based on this data, we developed statistical models suitable for the inference of different climatic parameters in the past," says the UCM researcher.
In other projects Wikimedia Commons. In his paper published in Proceedings of the
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The Central Iberian Peninsula was characterised by an arid savanna during the middle Miocene, according to a study led by the Complutense University of Madrid UCM comparing mammal populations from different localities in Africa and South Asia with those that inhabited the Iberian central area 14 million years ago.
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