Homoeroticism is sexual attraction between members of the same sex, either male—male or female—female. It is a much older concept than the 19th century idea of homosexuality, and is depicted or manifested Homoerotic fantasy art the history of the visual arts and literature.
It can also be found in Homoerotic fantasy art forms; from theatre to the theatricality of uniformed movements e. According to Oxford English Dictionaryit's "pertaining to or characterized by a tendency for erotic emotions to be centered on a person of the same sex; or pertaining to a homo-erotic person.
This is a relatively recent dichotomy  that has been studied in the earliest times of ancient poetry to modern drama by modern scholars. Thus, scholars have analyzed the historical context in many homoerotic representations such as classical mythologyRenaissance literature Homoerotic fantasy art, paintings and vase-paintings of ancient Greece and Ancient Roman pottery. Though homoeroticism can differ from the interpersonal homoerotic — as a set of artistic and performative traditions, in which such feelings can be embodied in culture and thus expressed into the wider society  — some authors have cited the influence of personal experiences in ancient authors such as CatullusTibullus and Propertius in their homoerotic Homoerotic fantasy art.
The term "homoerotic" carries with it the weight of modern classifications of love and desire that may not have existed in previous eras. Homosexuality as we know it today was not fully codified until the midth century, though this process began much earlier:. Following in the tradition of Michel Foucaultscholars such as Eve Kosofsky Sedgwick and David Halperin have argued that various Victorian public discourses, notably the psychiatric and the legal, fostered a designation or invention of the "homosexual" as a distinct category of individuals, a category solidified by the publications of sexologists such as Richard von Krafft-Ebing — and Havelock Ellis —sexologists who provided an almost-pathological interpretation of the phenomenon in rather Essentialist terms, an interpretation that led, beforeto hundreds of articles on the subject in The Netherlands, Germany, and elsewhere.
One result of this burgeoning discourse was that the "homosexual" was often portrayed as a corrupter of the innocent, with a predisposition towards both depravity and paederasty—a Homoerotic fantasy art portrayal if Late-Victorian and Edwardian sexologists were to account for the continuing existence of the "paederast" in a world that had suddenly become bountiful in "homosexuals.
Despite an ever-changing and evolving set of modern classifications, members of the same sex often formed intimate associations many of which were erotic as well as emotional on their own terms, most notably in the " romantic friendships " documented in the letters and papers of 18th- and 19th- century men and women see Rictor Norton, ed.
These romantic friendships, which may or may not have included genital sex, were characterized by passionate emotional attachments and what modern thinkers would consider homoerotic overtones. For Sigmund Freud"rather than being a matter only for a minority of men who identify as homosexual or gayhomoeroticism is Homoerotic fantasy art part of the very formation of all men as human subjects and social actors.
Male-male examples, in the visual fine arts, range through history: Several Italian Renaissance artists are thought to have been homosexual, and homoerotic appreciation of the male body has been identified by critics in works by Leonardo da Vinci and Michelangelo. More explicit sexual imagery occurring in the Mannerist and Tenebrist styles of the 16th and 17th centuries, especially in artists such as Agnolo BronzinoMichel SweertsCarlo Saraceni and Caravaggiowhose works were sometimes severely criticized by the Catholic Church.
James Bidgood and Arthur Tress were also very important pioneers in the s, radically moving homoerotic photography away from simple documentary and into areas that were more akin to fine-art surrealism. Female-female examples are most historically noticeable in the narrative arts: More recently, lesbian homoeroticism has flowered in photography and the writing of authors such as Patrick Califia and Jeanette Winterson.
Female homoerotic art by lesbian artists has often been less culturally prominent than the presentation of Homoerotic fantasy art eroticism by non-lesbians and for a primarily non-lesbian audience. In the west, this can be seen as long ago as the novel Carmillaand is also seen in cinema in such popular films Homoerotic fantasy art EmmanuelleThe HungerShowgirlsand most of all in pornography.
In the east, especially Japanlesbianism is the subject of the manga subgenre yuri. In many texts in the English-speaking world, lesbians have been presented as intensely sexual but also predatory and dangerous the characters are often vampires and the primacy of heterosexuality is usually re-asserted at the story's end.
This shows the difference between homoeroticism as a product of the wider culture and homosexual art produced by gay men and women. There is also a strong tradition of homoeroticism in poetry.
The most prominent example in the Western canon is that of the sonnets by William Shakespeare.
Though some critics have made assertions, some in efforts to preserve Shakespeare's literary credibility, to Homoerotic fantasy art being non-erotic in nature, no critic has disputed that the majority of Shakespeare's sonnets concern explicitly male-male love poetry. The only other Renaissance artist writing in English to do this was the poet Richard Barnfieldwho in The Affectionate Shepherd and Cynthia wrote fairly explicitly homoerotic poetry.
Barnfield's poems, furthermore, are now widely accepted as a major influence upon Shakespeare's. AudenFernando Pessoa and Allen Ginsberg. An Anthology of Friendship were the first known notable attempts at homoerotic anthologies since The Greek Anthology.
Since then, many anthologies have been published. In the female-female tradition, there are poets such as Sappho" Michael Field ", and Maureen Duffy. Emily Dickinson addressed a number of poems and letters with homoerotic overtones to her sister-in-law Susan Huntington Gilbert.