A rite of passage is a ceremony of the passage which occurs when an individual leaves one group to enter another. It involves a significant change of status in society.
In cultural anthropology the term is the Anglicisation of rite de passagea French term innovated Sexual rites of passage the ethnographer Arnold van Gennep in his work Les rites de passage"The Rites of Passage". In English, Van Gennep's first sentence of his first chapter begins: In addition, all these groups break down into still smaller societies in subgroups.
The population of a society belongs to multiple groups, some more important to the individual than others.
Van Gennep uses the metaphor, "as a kind of house divided into rooms and corridors. Van Gennep further distinguishes between "the secular" and "the sacred sphere. Passage between these groups requires a ceremonyor ritual hence rite of passage.
The rest of Van Gennep's book presents a description of rites of passage and an organization into types, although in the end he despairs of ever capturing them all: He refuses credit for being the first to recognize type of rites.
In the work Sexual rites of passage concentrates on groups and rites individuals might normally encounter progressively: He mentions some others, such as the territorial passage, a crossing of borders into a culturally different region, such as one where a different religion prevails.
Rites of passage have three phases: In the first phase, people withdraw from their current status and prepare to move from one place or status to another.
For example, the cutting of the hair for a person who has just joined the army. He or she is "cutting away" the former self: The transition liminal phase is the period between states, during which one has left one place or state but has not yet entered or joined the next. In the third phase reaggregation or incorporation the passage is consummated [by] the ritual subject.
Re-incorporation is characterized by elaborate rituals and ceremonies, like debutant balls and college graduation, and by outward symbols of new ties: Laboratory experiments have shown that severe initiations produce cognitive dissonance.
Initiation rites Sexual rites of passage seen as fundamental to human growth and development as well as socialization in many African communities.
These rites function by ritually marking the transition of someone to full group membership. Initiation rites are "a natural and necessary part of a community, just as arms and legs are natural and necessary extension of the human body". These rites are linked to individual and community development.
Manu Ampim identifies five stages; rite to birth, rite to adulthood, rite to marriage, rite to eldership and rite to ancestorship. Rites of passage are diverse, and are found throughout many cultures around the world. Many western societal rituals may look like rites of passage but miss some of the important structural and functional components. However, in many Native and African-American communities, traditional rites of passage programs are conducted by community-based Sexual rites of passage such as Man Up Global.
Typically the missing piece is the societal recognition and reincorporation phase.
Adventure education programs, such as Outward Boundhave often been described as potential rites of passage. Pamela Cushing researched the rites of passage impact upon adolescent youth at the Canadian Outward Bound School Sexual rites of passage found the rite of passage impact was lessened by the missing reincorporation phase. In various tribal societiesentry into an age grade —generally gender-separated— unlike an age set is marked by an initiation ritewhich may be the crowning of a long and complex preparation, sometimes in retreat.
Some academic circles such as dorms, fraternities, teams and other clubs practice hazingragging and Sexual rites of passage. First-year junior students are publicly humiliated through embarrassing clothing and senior students branding their faces with marker pens ; it is sometimes also a contest, with the winners usually earning the right to organize the next event.
Fraternities and sororities, like other private societies, often have codified initiation ceremonies as ritual separating candidates from members. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
For other uses, see Rite of passage disambiguation. Initiation ritual of boys in Malawi.
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The ritual marks the passage from child to adult male, each subgroup having its customs and expectations. Augustin Calmet Akbar S. This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources.
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The Encyclopedia of Malaysia Volume Archived from the original on 30 June Worldmark Encyclopedia of Religious Practices: Retrieved from " https: Ceremonies Rites of passage Anthropology of religion. Articles needing additional references from June All articles needing additional references CS1 French-language sources fr.